- Tips for Francophones -
Everyone has an accent! All accents are good accents, worthy of appreciation and respect, and all accents can change. To make a long story short, if you moved to a country with a different language after you began puberty, you will likely have an accent that can cause substitutions. You are using a French lens to perceive the English sound system, which acts as a filter to everything you hear and say. French and English share many sounds, but not all. This filter causes substitutions that can make it difficult for your listener to understand everything you’re saying. The fact that 60% of English vocabulary comes from French doesn’t help - it’s like trying to park in a space that already has a car - one memorized form resists the adaptation, so a new “parking space” must be constructed for that car to park, using the speech movements of English to “drive” this addition.
This article should help, and give you a “software update”. Keep in mind, it’s not enough to form the sounds using English rules, you also must inhibit the French rules that are eager to filter the way you speak and the way you hear speech. Controlling your pronunciation is an exercise in mindfulness: observation, awareness, and building your comfort in your new skills. It’s also a physical exercise like going to the gym, not only will it fatigue you, it’s the beginning of a lifelong endeavour of self-improvement, and like a personal trainer, your speech coach is there to guide and motivate you throughout the process, keeping you accountable until you’re ready to continue with self-study. With that in mind, let’s get started!
1. Do stressed words give you anxiety?
Stressed words and syllables are louder, longer, and more emphasized. English is a stress-timed language, and French is syllable-timed. This means that in English some words (often content words) are emphasized more than others, causing unstressed words (often function words) to be reduced. French syllables and words are similar in stress and duration in contrast. Coming from one language to the other causes errors in word and syllable stress. You must learn to produce stressed syllables with more effort, higher in volume and pitch, longer duration, and with more facial emphasis, whereas the reduced or unstressed syllables will be flat or lower in pitch, quieter, with less facial emphasis. I demonstrate syllable stress in examples by using BOLD CAPS.
Remember: words ending in -tion, -sion, or -cion have stress on the syllable prior
- con.TRACT (verb)
- CON.tract (noun)
2. Common substitutions of VOW.els in English caused by lip rounding or tongue/cheek/jaw tension errors
The difference between these two vowels is often neutralized (one sound used for both)
- /i/ po.LICE, feet, eat, and SILL.y tongue is tensed against sides of teeth
- /ɪ/ it, sit, kick, myth and BITT.er tongue is relaxed, jaw is lower than /i/
This sound is like the "è" in French, like "crème"
- /ɛ/ end, bet, less, and LETT.er corners of mouth pulled, tongue flat
This sound is absent in French - corners of mouth are pulled, back of tongue pushes forward. Similar to /ɛ/ but with the back of the tongue pushed forward and jaw lower
- /æ/ at, APP.le, fat, bad, pants, can’t and MATT.er
The difference between these two vowels neutralized in French. One sound is used for both.
- /u/ cool, tune, soup, and shoes lips are rounded, cheeks/jaw tense
- /ʊ/ book, should, PUDD.ing, foot no rounding, relaxed cheeks and tongue
This lax (unstressed) vowel has relaxed cheeks/tongue and is farther back than /ʊ/.
Can be in stressed syllables.
- /ʌ/ is the “uh” sound, as in bus, blood, come, Ken.TUCK.y and up
This lax (unstressed) vowel sound has relaxed cheeks/tongue. Jaw less open than /ʌ/.
Unstressed syllables only!
- /ə/ KING.dom, pho.TO.graphy, phil.OS.ophy, KET.chup, and a.BOUT
The schwa-r sound (r-coloured vowel) named so due to no separation between the sounds
- /ɚ/ BUTT.er, COLL.ar, FLA.vor, firm, her, girl, SQUIRR.el, world, and burst
This sound is present in French but may be used as a substitute for the /æ/ sound in English. Compare them!
- /ɑ/ FA.ther, walk, arm, heart, wasp, LA.ger, WA.ter, and AARD.vark
They are two-part vowels that begin with one shape and shift to another. Below are underlined the words that contain nasalized vowels.
- /oi/ boy, toy, avoid, spoil, coin, de.STROY.ed
- /ou/ bone, phone, home, boat, LOA.ding
- /ei/ bay, pain, rain, DAN.ger.ous, va.CA.tion
- /ai/ buy, pie, cry, sky, child, mind, BY.laws
- /au/ cow, about, found, loud, POW.er
4. The th sound is substituted by s or f, and z or v
English has two th sounds - one is voiceless, and one is voiced. They’re both made with the tongue tip lightly touching the teeth, allowing air friction to pass over top. There’s no “th” sound in French, so speakers often substitute s or f for voiceless th, and z or v for voiced th, which makes sense because they are such close neighbours.
- Voiced: this, that, other, mother, breathe
- Voiceless: think, thin, author, with, bathtub,
5. The h sound, and words beginning with vowels
In English, many words spelled with a silent h, (borrowed words from French) start with a vowel sound. However, many words require an h-onset which is a voiceless friction sound created at your vocal fold muscles in your throat. The constriction will vary depending on the following vowel, so your h-shape will change according to your following vowel shape. In casual speech, the h at the beginning of the pronouns he, her, him will be reduced, as well as the th sound in them. The ending of the word before is like a liaison.
- heat - eat
- hear - ear
- hungry - angry
- Reduced h sound: get’im, took’er, let'em
- I hurt my ankle,
- I hope my aunt is hearing okay,
- I hope’he hates it,
6. English r is at the tongue tip and lips, while French r is as the back of the tongue at the velum
You’ll need to shift your r sounds, especially at the ends of syllables, to your tongue tip - simultaneously flaring (not rounding) your lips. The curl/tension in your tongue tip combined with flared lips creates the English r sound.
- French sur English sir
- French corridor English CORR.i.dor